Coregionalization model for two separable multidimensional Gaussian Process

Dear Community,
I want to model a joint Gaussian Process with two response variables using a linear combination of two dimensional covariance functions (i.e a linear Coregionalization spatial process Or a bivariate geostatistical model) .

My idea is similar to this one: Multi-output gaussian processes. However, I have had problems with the “multiplication” because, as I understand it uses the kronecker product.
The model I’m trying to implement is described in (Schmidt, Gelfand eq. 1)

The model I want to implement is the following:
Let S1 and S2 two gp with covariance = gp.cov.Matern32(input_dims=2)
And then use the sum of two kronecker products of the covariance matrix

Now, I first tried to use a tt.tensor array (2x2) to act as the coregionalization matrix.
Then produce the Kronnecker product (covariance function) and sum a similar function

This is the code:

with pm.Model() as model:
    ## Building the covariance structure
    sigma_p = pm.HalfNormal('sigma_p',sd=3)
    #phi = pm.Uniform('phi',0,15)
    phi_p = pm.HalfNormal('phi_p',sd=1)
    cov_p= sigma_p *,phi_p,active_dims=[0,1])

    ## Building the covariance structure
    sigma_s = pm.HalfNormal('sigma_s',sd=3)
    #phi = pm.Uniform('phi',0,15)
    phi_s = pm.HalfNormal('phi_s',sd=1)
    cov_s= sigma_s *,phi_s,active_dims=[0,1])

    ## Build corregionalization matrix
    A = pm.Normal(name='a',mu=0,sd=1,shape=(2,2))
    ### Letś try to do the exercise with kronnecker prod 

    fl1 = [A,cov_p]
    fl2 = [A,cov_s]
    K1 =
    K2 =
    K = K1 + K2
    gp =
    f = gp.prior("latent_field", X=TX.values,reparameterize=False)
    y_obs = pm.Bernoulli('y_obs',logit_p=f,observed=Y)

However I had an error saying that the RV_Free variable has no attribute “input_dims” meaning that the only way to make the gp.cov.Kron to work is with a factor_list argument composed of ONLY covariance functions (i.e. gp.cov.Covariance).

I tried then to use the function gp.cov.Coregion however it seems to work only when input_dims=1 i.e. it only accepts 1d datasets.
ValueError: Coregion requires exactly one dimension to be active

So my question is, Do you think that its possible to achieve this with the current implementation of the GP API?

Do I need to extend it to cover multiple dimensional linear corregionalisations ?

Thanks for reading

The gp.cov.Coregion covariance is required to have input_dim=1 because the X variable it takes as input
is the index of the elements of the matrix B. This indexing constructs the linear combinations that underlie the coregionalization model. There’s no restrictions on the number of inputs for the underlying process covariance matrix, so your cov_p and cov_s should be OK. You should add a column to your X that is the index of which of the outputs the corresponding y variable belongs to, and set that as the active_dim for gp.cov.Coregion.

1 Like

Thank you @bwengals . However, I haven’t make it work. It appears to me that it’s not possible to use the CoRegion together with the kronecker product.
This is the code that I’m trying to run.

phi_pt = 40
phi_st = 15

##coregionalization matrix
a = np.random.normal(size=4).reshape(2,2)
A =,active_dims=[4],B=a)
K1 =[cov_p,A])

I’ve concatenated the coordinates and the outputs in corresponding columns.
i.e. Outputs y_1 and y_2 into Y and coords_1 and coords_2 into coords. I’ve create a new column idx indicating 0 when y belongs to y_1 and 1 when y belongs to y_2.
However, I’ve found that the spliting method in the gp.cov.Kron is not working properly with this configuration. I am getting an IndexError when evaluating K1(X).eval()
X has shape (456,5)
I’ve also duplicated the coords column to be consistent with the Kron covariance function.

So it looks like a Kronecker based implementation isn’t in PyMC3 (PR welcome!), but you can implement it without in a way that doesn’t take advantage of that computational speedup. Here is an example that should help get you going of a coregionalization GP model. Notice that you won’t have any issues with multidimensional inputs, they’ll work as normally.

generate and then plot the data

import numpy as np
import pymc3 as pm

# set the seed

n = 100 
x = np.linspace(0, 10, n)[:, None] 

# true covariance function and its true parameters
ell_true = 1.0
eta_true = 3.0
cov_func = eta_true**2 *, ℓ_true)
mean_func =

# two samples from the same gaussian process
f_true1 = np.random.multivariate_normal(mean_func(x).eval(),
                                        cov_func(x).eval() + 1e-8*np.eye(n), 1).flatten()
f_true2 = np.random.multivariate_normal(mean_func(x).eval(),
                                        cov_func(x).eval() + 1e-8*np.eye(n), 1).flatten()

sigma_true = 2.0
f1 = 0.5*f_true1 - 1.0*f_true2
f2 = 1.0*f_true1 + 0.2*f_true2
y1 = f1 + sigma_true * np.random.randn(n)
y2 = f2 + sigma_true * np.random.randn(n)

## Plot the data and the unobserved latent function
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12,5)); ax = fig.gca()
ax.plot(x, f1, "dodgerblue", lw=3, label="True f1");
ax.plot(x, f2, "tomato", lw=3, label="True f2");
ax.plot(x, y1, 'ok', ms=3, alpha=0.5, label="Data 1");
ax.plot(x, y2, 'ok', ms=3, alpha=0.5, label="Data 2");
ax.set_xlabel("x"); ax.set_ylabel("The true f(x)"); plt.legend();

Format the data for the coregionalized GP

xx = np.concatenate((x, x), axis=0)
idx = np.concatenate((np.zeros(n), np.ones(n)))[:,None]
X = np.concatenate((xx, idx), axis=1)

y = np.concatenate((y1, y2))
X.shape, y.shape

pymc3 model

with pm.Model() as model:
    eta = pm.Gamma("eta", alpha=2, beta=0.5)
    ell = pm.Gamma("ell", alpha=2, beta=0.5)
    cov = eta**2 *, ls=ell, active_dims=[0])
    W = pm.Normal("W", mu=0, sd=3, shape=(2,2), testval=np.random.randn(2,2))
    kappa = pm.Gamma("kappa", alpha=1.5, beta=1, shape=2)
    coreg =, active_dims=[1], kappa=kappa, W=W)
    cov_func = coreg * cov

    sigma = pm.HalfNormal("sigma", sd=3)
    gp =
    y_ = gp.marginal_likelihood("f", X, y, noise=sigma) 

MAP estimate and generate some predictions

with model:
    mp = pm.find_MAP()

x_new = np.linspace(0, 20, 200)[:,None]
xx_new = np.concatenate((x_new, x_new), axis=0)
idx2 = np.concatenate((np.zeros(200), np.ones(200)))[:,None]
X_new = np.concatenate((xx_new, idx2), axis=1)

with model:
    f_pred = gp.conditional("f_pred", X_new)

# To use the MAP values, you can just replace the trace with a length-1 list with `mp`
with model:
    pred_samples = pm.sample_ppc([mp], vars=[f_pred], samples=300)


from import plot_gp_dist
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12,5)); ax = fig.gca()

# plot the samples from the gp posterior with samples and shading
from import plot_gp_dist

f_pred = pred_samples["f_pred"]
plot_gp_dist(ax, f_pred[:, :200], X_new[:200,0], palette="Blues", fill_alpha=0.1, samples_alpha=0.1);
plot_gp_dist(ax, f_pred[:, 200:], X_new[200:,0], palette="Reds", fill_alpha=0.1, samples_alpha=0.1);